âItâs hard finding quality evidence for the efficacy, much less the need for these products,â Boothe says. “, Your email address will not be published. And increasingly, theyâre likely to give them to their pets, too. ConsumerLab.com tests of three probiotic supplements in 2006 showed that only one contained enough viable organisms to be effective. Be cautious about giving human supplements to dogs. However, if you are not providing enough nutrients to your dog, it might not be able to produce enough vitamin C. That is why there might be a need for you to supplement its diet with more vitamin C. Vitamin D is the type of vitamin we get from the sunâs rays. Your dog can get plenty of vitamin D if you let it out once in a while to bask under the rays of the sun. But a 2006 study for the National Institutes of Health Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial concluded that the supplements weren't effective in humans with mild pain. Take the Golden Retriever for example. âMake sure you stick with a standard of care and use the supplements as they were intended, as supplements.â. Bauer J.E. How to Relieve Dog Itching. It helps facilitate calcium absorption or metabolism while balancing out the phosphorous and calcium levels in your dog. Excess vitamin A can cause joint pain and dehydration. When they become pregnant there are other vitamins and minerals that need to be 'upped' to fill momma's need for healthy pups; for example, folic acid and iron. Welcome to the new WebMD Dog Health Center. Many dogs can have skin, coat and digestive issues.This excellent supplement. Thatâs probably all I would recommend.â. Read up and make sure that you are actually knowledgeable in the types of vitamins your dog needs and in the types of food that contain such vitamins and minerals. Too much calcium can cause skeletal problems, especially in large-breed puppies; too much vitamin A can harm blood vessels and cause dehydration and joint pain. Sixty percent of the pet products failed, compared to 25% of those manufactured for people, says Tod Cooperman, MD, president of ConsumerLab.com. As they say, there is always something as too much. Pet owners also may give probiotics to alleviate gastrointestinal problems or antioxidants to counteract the effects of aging, such as cognitive dysfunction. Many pet foods include vitamin E, so it is extremely rare that a dog would need to supplement this fat soluble vitamin. And if you are someone who does not follow a healthy diet and relies heavily on fatty and sugary foods, there is a good chance that your dog also has the same kind of diet. First off, the one question lingering in your head right now is whether or not dogs really need vitamins to stay in perfect health. But supplementation may be needed if it is difficult for you to give your dog its much-needed sunshine, such as when there are no available parks in your area or if you have no backyard. âDonât forego traditional therapies, especially if itâs a life- or organ-threatening illness for your pet,â says Dawn M. Boothe, DVM, MS, PhD, director of the clinical pharmacology lab at the Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine. Function: It is essential for the growth and development of body cells and helps metabolize food. âItâs absolutely critical, but it should be done to match the diet,â Wynn says. There are also supplements containing compounds targeted at maintaining brain function in dogs. Fatty acids can help coats look better. âThey come in with bags full sometimes,â she says. FDA: âUpdate on Animal Dietary Supplements.â. 10 Dog Breeds that are Hardest to Train, Hearts of Gold: 15 Greatest Dog Rescuers in the USA, Time-Worn Long Bois: The Salukis of Ancient Egypt. Riboflavin and vitamin B12 are good for facilitating enzyme functions in your dog. Other dog foods might contain botanicals, such as cranberry, to ward off urinary tract infections or DHA to boost cognitive development in puppies. Many pets will benefit from vitamin supplementation, but not all dogs need extra vitamins. But such harm is only risky if you are already giving your dog enough vitamins and minerals in its regular diet. âIf theyâre eating a complete and balanced diet and theyâre healthy and have no problems, they donât actually need supplementation,â Wynn says. McCarthy, G. The Veterinary Journal, July 2007; vol 174: pp 54-61. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. In a healthy dog, there is probably little or no gain from supplementing a dogâs diet with Vitamin C. Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin which means whatever the body doesnât use is expelled in the dogâs urine. There are plenty of types of B vitamins that are good for your dogâs overall health in the same way as we humans also require several types of B vitamins. It is good for fending off oxidative damage, and the lack of it can lead to long-term health problems such as muscle degeneration and issues with your reproductive health. The FDA oversees animal supplements. Check the label to see how much of an ingredient is actually in the food. Dog owners would agree that these canine pals are some of the most rewarding animals to take care of. Some products, such as garlic, can be dangerous for dogs. Know the seller. Many people take dietary supplements or vitamins. Vitamin E. Scientific studies have shown that, when combined with behavioral enrichment, antioxidants can improve memory and cognitive function in â¦ WebMD talked with experts for answers to frequently asked questions about dog vitamins and supplements. Well, it really depends on the dog and on what type of diet you feed it. Vita Health Adult Daily Vitamins. Here are the best vitamins for dogs: Vitamin A. Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is found in carrots, turnip greens, pumpkin, eggs, fish oil, liver, sweet potatoes, and spinach. Your email address will not be published. You need to know what kind of vitamins dogs need and the right dosage if you want them to stay as healthy as possible. The National Animal Supplement Council is addressing some of these concerns. As stated above, if your dog is in need of more B vitamins, you need to search out higher quality meats and organs from grass-fed animals. Most of us take some type of vitamin at least once in a while, so do dogs need vitamins to be healthy as well? Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K âIn the pet area, weâve seen the quality is lower than it is for human supplements,â Cooperman says. Some of the most common ones are multivitamins, fatty acids, joint supplements, fiber, and probiotics. Vitamins and minerals are the building blocks that your dogâs body uses to produce and repair everything from skin cells to neural pathways. While that type of diet might be delicious for your dog, it might not have the right balance of macronutrients and vitamins for your pet canine. As many as a third of U.S. dogs and cats may receive vitamins or supplements. The group has also required its members - about 90% of the industry - to adopt new standards for manufacturing by June 2010. If you're unsure about your dog's nutrition, talk to â¦ Excess vitamin D can prompt a dog to stop eating, harm bones, and cause muscles to atrophy. Oftentimes, an excess of a fat soluble vitamin is just as detrimental to a dogâs health as a deficiency. Vitamin A- This is needed for their skin and haircoat. Fish oil supplements also can reduce inflammation, according to a study published in the American Journal of Veterinary Research. Why is My Dog Scratching Like Crazy? The most common are multivitamins, supplements to support arthritic joints, and fatty acids to reduce shedding and improve a coatâs shine, according to a 2006 study published in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. According to PetMD, Vitamin C is really just expensive pee for dogs, so you may as well skip this (and choose to feed natural foods with Vitamin C â¦ âMost people are doing it because they want to, not because itâs necessary,â says C.A. There is nothing wrong with continuing to use daily vitamins throughout pregnancy but you do not need to do both. A lot of homemade dog foods are merely empty calories that have no nutritional value whatsoever. Thiamine and pantothenic give your dog more energy as it helps in regulating how carbohydrates are metabolized into energy. Vitamin E is necessary for eye and muscle health, cell function and fat metabolism. Symptoms that look like arthritis, such as a dog with a weak rear end, could instead be a neurological problem. Tony Buffington, DVM, PhD, professor of veterinary clinical sciences at The Ohio State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital. But "the quality of these products is a major, major concern,â Boothe says. A2008 report from the National Research Council, a scientific research unit of the nonprofit National Academies, concluded there was little information on the safety of pet supplements. The National Animal Supplement Council also checked its membersâ joint support products and found that 25% didnât meet label claims, president Bill Bookout says. âWe want to use things that are safe long-term,â Wynn says. Sale. Only give the dog vitamins and minerals if it is not getting enough from its regular diet. WebMD notes too much vitamin D can depress a dog's appetite, cause muscle atrophy and harm bones. Possibly. Affiliate DisclosureÂ “*Every Creature Counts is a participant in the Amazon Affiliate Program (and other affiliate programs as identified in the products). It has potentially serious side effects for your pet, including bone damage and even death. Veterinary nutritionist Susan Wynn, DVM, sees many clients in her practice near Atlanta who give their dogs vitamins and nutritional supplements. But do dogs need those vitamins and supplements? American Journal of Veterinary Research, April 2008; vol 69: pp 486-493. Vitamin B6 is one of the more important B vitamins for your dogs because of how it affects glucose production, red blood cell health, hormone regulation, and immune and nervous systems functions. âYou canât just create a meal and give your dog a vitamin.â Check with a veterinarian or nutritionist for help in determining what, if anything, is needed. Experts say some work, others donât, and some arenât necessary and may even be harmful to dogs. The vitamins and nutrients that pets need most are highlighted below. Unfortunately, there isnât always a clear answer. Go for whole foods and not of that processed junk if you are thinking of providing table food for your dog. âAlmost none of them have been tested for long-term safety in dogs,â Wynn says. Bill Bookout, president, National Animal Supplement Council. Again, it depends. Look for a brand that specializes in one area, or that has commissioned clinical studies of their products. Many pet owners wonder if their dogs would benefit from a dog vitamin or dietary supplement. âProbiotics fit that bill. Tomlyn High Calorie Nutritional Gel for Puppies, (Nutri-Cal) 4.25â¦ They actually need some sort of supplementation for their diet. The Feline Nutrition Foundation notes that cats need protein, fat, minerals, vitamins and water in their diet daily. All rights reserved. Here are the good B vitamins that play a big role in maintaining your dogâs health: You might recognize vitamin C as the vitamin that you take if you want to keep yourself healthy and safe from all sorts of illnesses such as flu and colds. That is why they always tell you to eat carrots, which is high in vitamin A. Vitamin A toxicity in dogs most often occurs accidentally or inadvertently. 2 ï»¿ If your veterinarian recommends a daily multivitamin for your dog, ask for product recommendations. Tony Buffington, DVM, PhD, professor of veterinary clinical sciences, Ohio State University Veterinary Hospital. Vitamins keep your petâs skin and coat healthy, strengthen bones and teeth, and give them the overall energy that they need to function. â Tastiest High-Energy Nutritional Supplement. Giving vitamin supplements without veterinary oversight comes with potential dangers. If you look at the statistics, about a third of the dogs in the United States actually receive vitamins and minerals to supplement their diet. This is essential for maintaining bone and muscle health in dogs. Cooperman says ConsumerLab.com has found fewer problems with supplements sold at vetâs offices, although they do occur. The single best way to provide your dog with the vitamins they need is through whole, raw, meats, bones and organs. Dogs fed a homemade diet may need supplements. So, if your dog doesn't have a high-quality diet and needs extra supplementation, what vitamins do they need? A poor coat could indicate skin, metabolic or hormonal problems. WebMD veterinary experts provide comprehensive information about dog health care, offer nutrition and feeding tips, and help you identify illnesses in dogs. The council sets labeling guidelines, requires adverse event reports for problems with supplements and tests some products to check whether they contain the amount of ingredients claimed on the label. Sixty percent of the pet products failed, compared to 25% of those manufactured for people, says Tod Cooperman, MD, president of ConsumerLab.com. Look for a contact number for the company on the label. Call and ask who formulated the product, what expertise they have, and how long the manufacturer has been in business. He says that while most dog foods are full of all the vitamins and minerals your dog â¦ And are they even safe? © 2005 - 2019 WebMD LLC. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Vitamin C is actually a vitamin that dogs naturally produce in their livers. There are some vitamins that dogs need more than others, and they are those that you should include in their diet, be it in their food or with supplements. Read labels. Unlike synthetic vitamins and minerals, whole foods and herbs provide essential nutrients complete with the cofactors they need to make a healthy change in your dog This early research showed scientists that synthetic vitamins donât always act like their real food counterparts â¦ even with todayâs more sophisticated vitamins and research. With a growing population of aging, overweight dogs, the market for dog supplements is expected to increase 37% by 2012, reaching $1.7 billion, according to Packaged Facts, a market research firm. However: while the various forms of vitamin B need to come from your dogâs diet, vitamin C is produced naturally by their bodies. C.A. Deficiency: Symptoms include inflammation of the lips and fissures in the mouth. This is the case for phosphorus and calcium, copper and iron, phosphorus and sodium, zinc and magnesium, and more. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Dec. 1, 2007; vol 231: pp 1657-1661. In such cases, you will certainly need to supplement your dog with the right kind of vitamins and minerals to complete a diet that is otherwise healthy and nutritious. Some adult dog foods contain glucosamine/chondroitin but because of state regulations that restrict the amount, itâs usually not a therapeutic dose. Vitamins needed for your dog include: 1. Better yet, ask your vet if your dog requires vitamin supplementation and always make it a point to know the dosage. But if you rely heavily on cheap dog food and on homemade meals made out of table scraps or cheap meats, you may want to provide vitamins and minerals for your dog. Check the label of the dog food and see to it that it contains the essential vitamins and minerals your dog needs to function well and stay healthy. National Research Council, âSafety of Dietary Supplements for Horses, Dogs and Cats.â. WebMD teams up with veterinarians to talk about vitamin safety, dangers, and what to look for. Susan Wynn, DVM, nutritionist for Georgia Veterinary Specialists, Sandy Springs, Ga.; clinical resident in small animal nutrition, University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine. Unlike dogs, they donât need as much of these substances. Look for a lot number on the product, a sign that the company has set up quality control checks. Those with moderate to severe pain may have seen some benefit, but because of the small size of this group the researchers called for more studies. It simply means that there really is something as too much. It may surprise you that the life expectancy for dogs has greatly dropped from where it once was. Many different types of vitamins and supplements can be used for dogs. Is there any danger in giving my dog vitamins? This seaweed, kelp-based meal powder can be added right into their food to provide the essential vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and amino acids that they need to be in optimum health. Clegg, D.O. ConsumerLab.com, which tests products for its industry certification program and sells subscriptions to its reports for consumers, surveyed glucosamine/chondroitin supplements for pets and humans. And when you are giving your pet canine vitamins and minerals, always make sure that you check the label and look at the required dosage. FDA: âNutritional Supplements for Companion Animals.â. Freeman, L. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Aug. 15, 2006; vol 229: pp 531-534. There is also a possibility for your dogâs bones and muscles to weaken if you are giving your pet too much vitamin D. So, what does this mean? It depends on what the supplement is used for and how it is manufactured, veterinarians say. Now that you know how important vitamins and minerals are to your dogâs health, here are some of the ways you can use to incorporate them into your furry friendâs diet: Rely on commercial dog food that is complete in terms of nutritional value. Do Dogs Need Vitamin C? Glucosamine-chondroitin supplements, commonly given to dogs with osteoarthritis, have shown mixed results in testing in humans and animals. LeBlanc C.J. New England Journal of Medicine, Feb. 23, 2006; vol. But you have to judicious when you are selecting the right vitamins for your dogs because they do not have bodies that are similar to that of humans. They make great additions to your dogâs dietâwhether you feed packaged dog food or home cook meals. Prenatal vitamins for dogs do have some benefits, though. If you are talking about supplementation for dogs, you have to make sure that you are giving them vitamins. Dogs have specific vitamin requirements, which can include: Vitamin K for activation of clotting factors, bone proteins, and other proteins Vitamin B1 (thiamin) for carbohydrate metabolism and the activation of ion channels in neural tissue Riboflavin and niacin (also known as vitamins B2 and B3, respectively) for enzyme functions Adding extra vitamin C to your dog's diet can cause serious health problems, so unless your dog has been prescribed them by a vet, do not give vitamin C supplements. Letâs find out how vitamin A helps your dog, what a case of vitamin A toxicity looks like and what steps should be taken to resolve the problem in your dog. Because this is a very powerful antioxidant, vitamin C also works like a charm for your dogs. A 2007 study published in The Veterinary Journal concluded that dogs treated with glucosamine-chondroitin sulfate showed less pain and more mobility after 70 days of treatment. But sheâs cautious about recommending supplements, especially for young animals that might be on nutritional supplements for many years. Meanwhile, too much vitamin A can possibly lead to issues such as joint pain, dehydration, or even damage to the dogâs blood vessels. This vitamin is also responsible for facilitating your dogâs aging process as it may be able to halt some signs of aging to give your canine pal a bit more years in its lifespan. You should never give your dog more than it requires. In most cases, if you rely heavily on commercial dog food, there is a good chance that your dog already receives the optimum vitamins and minerals it needs to be in good health. surveyed glucosamine/chondroitin supplements for pets and humans. These vitamins and minerals are considered to be essential nutrients â without them your dogâs body is unable to function optimally. This vitamin is abundant in citrus fruits such as oranges and lemons. So, what do dogs and cats need specifically to remain healthy? If an animal already eats a balanced diet and receives excess portions of some vitamins and minerals, they could be harmful, according to the FDA and veterinarians. Español Vitamin D is an essential nutrient that helps dogs regulate the balance and retention of calcium and phosphorus. Avoid preparing your own homemade dog food that lacks essential vitamins and minerals. First off, the one question lingering in your head right now is whether or not dogs really need vitamins to stay in perfect health. Be wary of claims that sound too good to be true, such as promises to alleviate diseases like parvovirus. Absolutely, vets say. Learn how your comment data is processed. âWe require companies to do an investigation, find out why that is, and take corrective action.â. It is effective at attacking free radicals and in reducing inflammation to make sure that all sorts of toxins are flushed out. Selenium: an antioxidant that helps prevent oxidative damage that can cause premature aging, â¦ Without it, your dog will certainly end up with weaker bones, poor joints, or even deformities. They are just as good for your dogâs health as they are for you. Itâs an important anti-oxidant found in leafy green vegetables. In dogs that are already getting enough calcium, giving them more will only lead to problems in their skeleton. Found in: Tofu, green beans, broccoli, and cauliflower (calcium). A prescription dog food, on the other hand, may contain therapeutic levels of the supplement. Vitamin E is responsible for helping your dogâs body metabolize fat and in facilitating cell functions. "If you cook for your dog, they may need supplements," explains Dr. Klein. Meats, eggs & fish... Found in: Tofu, green beans, broccoli, and cauliflower (calcium). She recommends fruits and vegetables to pet owners who want to give extra nutrients. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, âNutritional Supplements for Companion Animals.â. Well, it really depends on the dog and on what type of diet you feed it. Vitamin B2 It is water-soluble. Minerals Calcium & Phosphorus Vitamin A. Most dogs receive a complete and balanced diet - including necessary vitamins and minerals - from commercially processed dog food, according to the FDA. Furthermore, high levels of one mineral in the diet often interfere with the uptake of another. âFrom an efficacy and safety standard, if itâs in a pet food, I have a greater level of confidence,â Boothe says. Clinical trials are rare. Only healthy dogs with a healthy diet are prone to the dangers of taking in too many vitamins. Your vet can also assess whether your pet needs a supplement. Dawn M. Boothe, DVM, MS, PhD, director, clinical pharmacology laboratory, Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine. About: Vita Health Daily Vitamins are scientifically formulated to â¦ Required fields are marked *. Simply put, there are possible dangers and side-effects to a diet that is supplemented with vitamins. Antioxidants such as vitamins C and E also reduce inflammation and help aging dogs with memory problems, Wynn says. This dispenses the need for you to go to a vet or to a pet nutritionist. But taking care of dogs requires patience and knowledge on your part because simply giving them the right kind of food and the exercise they need will not always be enough for the furry babies to stay healthy. Top Vitamins for Dogs. The immediate dangers of a lack in vitamin C for dogs are twofold: first, there is the danger of your dog becoming weaker and more fatigued than usual, and consequently decreasing the strength of the immune system. In other words, there is an increasing number of pet dogs that require vitamins, probably due to how poor their diet is. We occasionally get a commission if you buy an Amazon product through our link and we will use this amount raised to rescue more animals from kill shelters, or to donate the amount for animals’ emergency medical needs. Do dogs need Vitamin C supplements. can help turn those things around and help improve, not only your dogâs coat and skin, but their overall health as well.. Thinkstock However, most dogs and cats that are on well-balanced, quality pet foods do not need extra supplementation of vitamins. You should consider your dogâs age, overall health, and activity level before supplementing. Ingredients in some supplements, such as herbals, may interact with other medicine an animal is taking. 354: pp 795-808. When you always deal with itchy, dry, flaky, crusty or frequent skin lesions, this may be a â¦ Here are tips from veterinarians and those who test supplements or work in the industry. Good sources: These include asparagus, bananas, â¦ If we mention a product from the site and link it to a third party vendor, please assume it is an affiliate link. Most common dog supplements recommended to add to homemade dog food recipes include: Multivitamin supplements Hip and joint supplements Omega-3 fatty acids ( fish oil) Vitamins A & E Calcium Protein supplements Doggone It! Do dogs really need vitamins? Other than that, vitamin A is fat-soluble and is good for keeping your dogâs immune system healthy while also improving cell function and overall growth. In some cases, there are also dog owners who rely on homemade food for their dogs by putting together scraps of table food. The National Animal Supplement Council also check, By clicking Subscribe, I agree to the WebMD, Smart Grocery Shopping When You Have Diabetes, Surprising Things You Didn't Know About Dogs and Cats, Coronavirus in Context: Interviews With Experts, Sign Up to Receive Our Free Coroanvirus Newsletter, Raw Dog Food: Dietary Concerns, Benefits, and Risks. Look for certification from an organization that has independently verified a supplementâs contents. Whole foods such as meat and vegetables are rich in essential vitamins and minerals. However, there are some types of dog food (the cheaper ones) that basically are just calories and macronutrients and do not contain any vitamins. Folic acid helps in metabolizing amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. Know the name of the ingredient youâre looking for, so you wonât be deceived by sound-alikes. I make my dog foodâ¦ Cooked chicken, rice, carrots (canned salt free), beets, fresh cut apple, canned green beans no salt, do I need to add a vitamin supplement and â¦ If you are planning on giving your dog vitamins as a supplement to a diet that does not give them the required vitamins and minerals, you can look at the following types of vitamins and minerals that are essential to your dogâs health: You may remember vitamin A as the vitamin that your parents tell you about to eat if you want to maintain good eye health. Carrots, spinach, liver, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, fish oil, eggs, turnip greens. WebMD does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It actually has the same effect on your dog as vitamin A helps maintain your dogâs vision even as it ages. The same can said about dogs and the vitamins you give them. What’s Special about the Wholehearted Natural Dog Food Brand? Cats need the following in their diets. Other than that, she limits her recommendations if a dog is healthy. If an animal already eats a balanced diet â¦ âYour Dogâs Nutritional Needs,â Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, National Academies Division on Earth and Life Studies.Â. There have been many studies that show antioxidants such as vitamins E and C will protect and repair brain cells. Keep reading this AnimalWised article to find out what are the best vitamins for dogs and in what foods they can be found. Possibly. Vitamin D. Marine fish oil, fatty fish, egg yolks, dairy products, liver, beef, cottage cheese. So, if you are giving your dog the right kind of commercial dog food that already has plenty of essential vitamins and minerals, you probably do not already need to give your pet vitamins. A sick dog. However, extremely high levels of vitamin D can cause serious health problems. Multivitamins: Never give human multivitamins to dogs. Consumerlab.Com tests of three probiotic supplements in 2006 showed that only one contained enough viable organisms to be.... Bones, poor joints, or even deformities dog foods contain glucosamine/chondroitin but of. Muscles to atrophy also dog owners would agree that these canine pals are of... Veterinary experts provide comprehensive information about dog health Center a contact number for the company has up! The dosage essential nutrient that helps dogs regulate the balance and retention of calcium and.! Skin, metabolic or hormonal problems dog more than it is manufactured veterinarians... Show antioxidants such as cognitive dysfunction need specifically to remain healthy potentially serious side effects for your dog enough and..., too counteract the effects of aging, such as promises to alleviate gastrointestinal problems antioxidants. Iron, phosphorus and calcium, copper and iron, phosphorus and sodium, zinc and,... Protect and repair brain cells State University Veterinary Hospital give your dog, ask your vet your! Spinach, liver, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, fish oil supplements also can reduce inflammation, to... Side-Effects to a study published in the food calcium levels in your dog may therapeutic. Phosphorous and calcium levels in your dog enough vitamins and minerals if it an! Include vitamin E is responsible for helping your dogâs age, overall health, website... Cases, there are also supplements containing compounds targeted at maintaining brain in., on the dog and on what type of diet you feed it dog. 'S appetite, cause muscle atrophy and harm bones sort of supplementation for their dogs vitamins and supplements can found... Can reduce inflammation, according to a diet that is, and some arenât necessary and may even be to. Journal of Veterinary clinical sciences at the Ohio State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital England Journal of most. 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